Environmental Justice Berlin 2013
The Four Integrated Multiple-load Maps
Environmental justice needs to be approached as a multi-dimensional topic; an integrated analysis and an integrative representation of different environmental loads but also of the socio-spatial distribution of environmental resources are required.
As a result of the two-step environmental justice monitoring, the following (integrated multiple-load maps have been developed:
“Integrated multiple-load map environment”,
it shows the four environment-related multiple loads (core indicators air, noise, thermal load and availability of green spaces);
“Integrated multiple-load map environment and social issues”,
it extends the first map by the fifth core indicator social issues (cf. Fig. 9),
“Integrated multiple-load map – thematic”,
this map qualitatively illustrates the type of environmental load in the individual planning areas of the city (cf. Fig. 10);
“Berlin environmental justice map 2014/15”,
besides the five core indicators, this map also illustrates the particularly high health risk and the affectedness (number of inhabitants in the planning areas).
Results in a city-wide comparison
The evaluation shows: Environmental justice is distributed quite unequally in the city area. Thus, the data acquisition and analysis as well as the measures to be derived from them need to be urgently substantiated. Also, the strong dependency between the social index and the environmental factors under consideration becomes evident:
The correlation of this multiple load of the environmental variables with the social index indicates the connection, that is, the degree of environmental justice, in Berlin.
Thus, the planning areas with two-, three- or even fourfold environmental load show a significantly higher share of low and very low index values. By contrast, PLAs without environmental load are predominantly characterised by very high/high index values.
Focus area inner city
The analysis of the spatial distribution of environmental justice shows a significant concentration in the inner-city area of Berlin, for example a high multiple load from environmental factors, which coincide with a low social status in the northern part of the borough Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, in Wedding, the southern part of the borough Reinickendorf, and in northern Neukölln. By contrast, a very low/low environmental load and a very high/high social status can predominantly be found in the suburbs.
Upon a closer look at the numbers, especially in the focus area inner city, the following situation presents itself:
- In the extended inner city area, there are around 1.58 million inhabitants in total. Of the population affected by the individual core indicators, around 200,000 (12.7%) are affected by a high noise load, around 730,000 (46.2%) by high air pollution, 870,000 (55.1%) by low availability of green spaces and around 1.45 million (91.8%) inhabitants by a high bioclimatic load.
- The focus area is also disproportionally represented with respect to the number of planning areas with multiple load. 1 PLA with a fivefold load (out of 3 in total) is located here, 11 out of 17 with a fourfold load and 59 out of 71 with a 3-fold load.
- As for the affectedness of the inhabitants, the disproportionate load is also reflected in the individual indicators. Out of the 173 PLAs in the “priority area for air purity”, 29 (6.5% of all Berlin PLAs) are affected by a high/very high noise load, 85 (19.0%) by air pollution, 81 (18.1%) by low availability of green spaces, 152 (43.0%) by thermal load and 42 (9.4%) by a difficult social structure. Out of the 173 PLAs within the inner-city area, 64 (37.0% of the inner-city PLAs) have a predominantly (meaning more than 66% of the postal addresses) simple residential character, out of which 10 (5.8%) are additionally affected by a very high noise load and/or air pollution.
According to the above, a consideration at the borough level shows – not surprisingly – a severe inequality regarding the distribution of the multiple load.
With respect to the proportions of affectedness of the inhabitants, the Mitte borough has the highest load. At least 50% of the inhabitants are affected by at least a threefold load. Tempelhof-Schöneberg, Neukölln and Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf are further boroughs with a relatively high share of affected population. By contrast, Treptow-Köpenick and Steglitz-Zehlendorf are the boroughs with the lowest percentage of inhabitants affected by multiple loads.
It also becomes evident that the affectedness varies significantly within the boroughs. The inner-city, densely developed districts (e.g. northern Neukölln) are almost always disadvantaged with respect to the more open areas.
In the Berlin suburbs where some Wilhelminian dense structures or large estates (whether east or west) are present (e.g. Spandau and Marzahn), higher categories of load are also regularly found.
Borough-level comparison of results
According to boroughs:
Mitte is one of the Berlin boroughs with the heaviest load: With 8 out of 20 planning areas with five- and fourfold load (i.e. 40.0%), a disproportionally high number of areas with high loads are situated here. This problem becomes even more evident in view of the number of inhabitants. Mitte accounts for almost half of all affected inhabitants in Berlin who live in the areas with the heaviest loads (99,481 out of altogether 204,116 of all Berlin inhabitants (48,7 %)).
The northern districts of Wedding outside of the S-Bahn ring (PLAs Westliche Müllerstraße, Reinickendorfer Straße, Sparrplatz, Soldiner Straße, Gesundbrunnen) as well as western Moabit (PLAs Beusselkiez, Heidestraße) are areas with particularly high loads. The historical city centre also forms an area with significant load; by contrast, Spandauer and Rosenthaler Vorstadt (PLAs Oranienburger Straße, Charitéviertel, Invalidenstraße) are subareas with a comparatively lower load in the borough.
The thermal load in the usually very densely built-up areas is a pervasive problem (high categories). Whereas the prognosis area Centre (0101) is characterised by high air pollution almost throughout, the other prognosis areas to a higher extent include planning areas with a medium load. As regards the distribution of the social condition, the situation is reversed; here the prognosis area Centre (0101) – in contrast to the other prognosis areas – can largely be classified as average, in parts even as good.
The particular load of the prognosis areas Gesundbrunnen (0103) and Wedding (0104) and to a lesser extent Moabit (0102) becomes evident when the population numbers in the highest load categories 4 and 5 are included. Out of altogether 348,102 inhabitants (28.7%), 99,481 people live in these prognosis areas.
The Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg borough belongs to the most heavily disadvantaged boroughs in Berlin with respect to environmental justice. Two- to threefold loads of the planning areas are the norm. The number of inhabitants negatively affected by several core indicators is also higher than in the Berlin average (borough 212,898 (77.8 %), Berlin 1,771,903 people affected (50.4 %)).
The borough as a whole is a focal point of the loads; only some planning areas, for example next to the Tempelhofer Freiheit (PLA Chamissokiez), in eastern Kreuzberg (east and west of the Görlitzer Park, PLAs Reichenberger Straße, Wrangelkiez) and in western Friedrichshain (PLAs Barnimkiez, Weberwiese) show a onefold load.
Except for the noise load (which is slightly below the average), all core indicators and the social condition are worse than in the Berlin average. Thus, there is a need for action in nearly all fields of environmental justice.
The share of inhabitants from Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg who live in a load-free planning area is very low. 77.8% (212,898 inhabitants) live in planning areas with at least a twofold load. Consequently, along with the challenges resulting from the social condition, they are also exposed to at least one health impairment.
Regarding the distribution of planning areas according to load, Pankow roughly corresponds to the Berlin average. The same is true with respect to the distribution of the population for the different load levels.
The inner-city parts of the borough and the edge of the inner city are the focal points of the planning areas with multiple loads. The most problematic planning areas are situated in the prognosis areas northern and southern Prenzlauer Berg (0306 and 0307, respectively), which are characterised by Wilhelminian architecture and by residential and commercial use.
With respect to the four environment-related core indicators, the air pollution shows a strong upward deviation compared to the Berlin average (borough 72.5%, Berlin 57.9%). Moreover, the high share of medium problem density (borough 87.5%, Berlin 59.1%) merits attention. The other core indicators correspond to the Berlin average.
While the share of planning areas with no load or with smaller loads (onefold or twofold) is above the Berlin average, the share of the number of affected inhabitants is higher than in the entire city. Of particular note are the people who live in the planning areas with twofold load (37.7% Pankow, 27.2% Berlin average). The high population density in the inner-city planning areas will have an impact here.
In comparison to the entire Berlin area, the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf borough performs worse with respect to areas with no, onefold and twofold load (borough PLAs with no, onefold and twofold load 73.3%, Berlin 79.6%). This classification is also reflected in the number of affected inhabitants (borough 221,782 (68.7 %), Berlin 2,702,351 (76.8 %)).
The S-Bahn ring and the city expressway ring draw a relatively clear line between the planning areas with no or small load and the western inner city with a comparatively homogeneous (twofold to threefold) load. The planning areas with multiple loads outside of the inner city (e.g. PLAs Königin-Elisabeth-Straße, Schlangenbader Straße) can be attributed to areas with a high traffic load (federal motorway, railway facilities).
As regards the individual core indicators, the availability of green spaces and the air pollution are below average in comparison to the entire city area. Regarding the social condition, the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf borough is above the Berlin level.
As much of the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf population is concentrated in the inner-city planning areas which usually have a higher load, the share of affected persons who live in PLAs with four- or threefold loads is significantly higher than in the Berlin average (borough 31.3%, Berlin 22.6%). Overall, 101,088, i.e. nearly a third of all inhabitants of the Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf borough, live in PLAs with three- or fourfold load.
In comparison to Berlin, the Spandau borough roughly corresponds to the average of the entire city. However, the few planning areas with multiple loads to the east, west and north of the historical city centre are densely populated (92,597 inhabitants live in PLAs with multiple loads). The upcoming closure of Tegel airport will presumably result in a load reduction, as noise in particular will be reduced significantly.
The planning areas in the new city and in the Falkenhagener Feld (particularly PLAs Darbystraße, Germersheimer Platz, Eiswerder, Kurstraße, Ackerstraße, Carl-Schurz-Straße, Gartenfelder Straße) form the spatial focal points. In these areas, there are threefold or fourfold loads (Carl-Schurz-Straße) as well as social challenges.
In comparison to the Berlin average, the Spandau borough does much better with respect to the number of planning areas with good availability of free spaces (borough 87.2%, Berlin 55.5%). Regarding air pollution, Spandau also belongs to the boroughs with smaller loads in comparison to the entire city. The high share of planning areas with high noise load (PLAs with high noise load: borough 59%, Berlin 19.2%) is a clear “outlier” in the negative sense. A look at the spatial distribution suggests Tegel airport and its approach path as a fundamental cause.
The number of people affected by a onefold load is significantly higher than in the Berlin average. 44.7% fall under this category (Berlin 22.4%). The remaining, worse categories show smaller shares. All in all, this yields a better overall picture compared to Berlin.
Steglitz-Zehlendorf is a borough with small environmental loads, in comparison to the entire city. Only the planning areas in the densely built-up area of the Schloßstraße centre as well as individual planning areas in the Südende/Lankwitz area exhibit some load.
The number of people affected is low both in relation to the overall population of the borough and in comparison to Berlin. 16.6% (49,567 inhabitants) live in planning areas with multiple loads.
The former borough of Zehlendorf can be classified as load-free in its entirety. Regarding the former borough of Steglitz, a more differentiated picture emerges. The densely built-up area with nearly inner-city character around the Schloßstraße and the Wannseebahn and Westtangente includes planning areas with two- or threefold load.
The Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough exhibits low shares of problematic load levels regarding all core indicators, with the exception of thermal load. Accordingly, the share of planning areas with a small load is high. Only 7 out of 41 PLAs show multiple loads.
Almost three quarters (71.0%) of all inhabitants live in load-free areas, only around 16.6% of the population live in areas with two- or threefold load. There are no planning areas with four- or fivefold load.
Regarding the distribution of planning areas, the borough is slightly above the Berlin average. As regards the affected inhabitants, while there is no population with four- or fivefold load, the share of people affected by a threefold load is significantly higher.
The inner-city part of the Tempelhof-Schöneberg borough is characterised throughout by varying degrees of multiple loads. Even the areas of Friedenau (0703) and Tempelhof (0704), which adjoin the S-Bahn ring from the south and are characterised by a comparatively high urban structural density and mixed use, usually exhibit a two- or threefold load.
South of the Teltow Canal there are no planning areas with appreciable loads.
The divergence from the Berlin average is relatively small for many of the factors. The most negative deviation occurs for air pollution. While the share of PLAs with high air pollution amounts to 41.3% in the Tempelhof-Schöneberg borough, the share in the entire city only amounts to half of this value (24.4%).
Regarding the proportion of people affected in the different load levels, Tempelhof-Schöneberg also roughly corresponds to the Berlin average. The slightly higher share of affected persons in areas with a threefold load is “balanced” by the lack of four- and fivefold loads as well as a higher share of inhabitants in load-free planning areas.
The south of the borough of Neukölln hardly suffers from any load. By contrast, the densely developed planning areas of northern Neukölln, which are also characterised by social challenges, exhibit medium or high loads throughout (especially PLAs Wissmannstraße, Flughafenstraße, Körnerpark, Glasower Straße, Bouchéstraße, Reuterkiez, Donaustraße, Rixdorf, Treptower Straße Nord, Gewerbegebiet Ederstraße, Gewerbegebiet Köllnische Heide, Buschkrugallee Nord). At the same time, a large number of Neukölln inhabitants is concentrated in these planning areas. All in all, the Neukölln borough roughly corresponds to the Berlin average.
The focal point of the multiple loads is the north of Neukölln, i.e. the planning areas within the inner-city limits as well as areas which still have Wilhelminian character and immediately adjoin the S-Bahn ring from the south. In these areas, the loads are medium to high throughout. By contrast, the situation in the south of Neukölln is largely characterised by small or no loads.
The most pronounced downward deviation occurs for the distribution of classifications for the status index. Thus, the share of PLAs with a high or very high problem density amounts to 52.0% in Neukölln, while the share amounts to 22.8% for the entire city. Regarding the environmental factors, the lack of availability of green spaces and the comparatively higher thermal load stand out particularly.
Around two thirds (61.6%) of the inhabitants of Neukölln are affected by at least a twofold load (Berlin 49.8%). Accordingly, a higher percentage of inhabitants is affected by a heavier load in Neukölln. However, in contrast to inner-city boroughs with a similar urban structure like Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Mitte or even Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, the downward deviation in comparison to the Berlin average is less significant.
All in all, the environmental load of the Treptow-Köpenick borough is small – this is true for the number of planning areas as well as for the absolute number of persons affected. Thus, next to Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Treptow-Köpenick belongs to the Berlin boroughs with the smallest load.
Few planning areas exhibit any load at all (one- or twofold load), namely the densely built-up areas of Alt-Treptow, Schöneweide as well as the historical centre Köpenick with its outskirts.
All indicators in Treptow-Köpenick are better than average in comparison to the entire city of Berlin. Particularly the factors availability of green spaces, air pollution and thermal load are significantly better. The status index also turns out better. Only in the case of the indicator noise, the situation is only slightly better compared to the Berlin average.
Three quarters of all inhabitants (182,471 inhabitants, 74.2%) live in load-free areas. 17.5% of the people affected live in planning areas with a onefold load. This makes Treptow-Köpenick the borough with the smallest load in Berlin.
In comparison to the entire city, the Marzahn-Hellersdorf borough does well, with few planning areas with multiple loads. This is also true for the distribution of the different load levels over the affected inhabitants.
There is a clear distinction between the planning areas that are not densely built-up and often characterised by areas with detached houses and the two areas with the large settlements Marzahn and Hellersdorf. In contrast to the detached houses, both large settlement areas include some planning areas with multiple loads (e.g. Marzahner Promenade, Helle Mitte).
The values for all core indicators are above the Berlin average in the Marzahn-Hellersdorf borough. This is especially true for the good or very good availability of green spaces.
The comparatively small load in the planning areas is also reflected in the share of the population. 74.5% of the Marzahn-Hellersdorf inhabitants (189,435 inhabitants) live in planning areas with no load or with a onefold load (Berlin 49.6%).
Due to the large share of 59.8% of planning areas with onefold load (and correspondingly a higher share in the population), the Lichtenberg borough cannot be classified as overall better than average. However, all in all, the degree of multiple loads is lower than in the Berlin average.
Areas with a greater and a smaller load are nearly evenly distributed across the borough. The reasons for this are to be found in small-scale factors.
Overall, Lichtenberg lies slightly below the Berlin average. Especially the higher share of planning areas with high noise load and thermal load are clearly evident. 22 PLAs in the borough (68.6%) have a high thermal load (Berlin 51.0%).
Concerning the numbers of inhabitants in the different classifications, the borough is situated in the mid-range: Lichtenberg has fewer planning areas with no load, but at the same time also proportionally fewer planning areas or affected inhabitants with multiple loads than the entire city.
Although the Reinickendorf borough has a disproportionate share of planning areas with fivefold load, the share of the population and the number of the planning areas with multiple load is smaller than in the Berlin average. The situation will presumably improve considerably after the closure of Tegel airport.
The south-east of the borough (in particular PLAs Letteplatz, Klixstraße, Scharnweberstraße, Dannenwalder Weg) is the spatial focal point of the planning areas with multiple load. More densely built-up structures with a Wilhelminian mixed character as well as the approach path for Tegel airport are located here.
Most of the factors are distributed according to the Berlin average, partly slightly better, but also partly worse. The share of planning areas with a high noise load is significantly worse (borough 36.7%, Berlin 19.2%).
In comparison to the entire city, the distribution over the different load classifications is more favourable in Reinickendorf. Only in the segment of the highest loads, the share of fivefold loads stands out compared to the Berlin average (borough 6.7%, Berlin 0.7%). It is striking that 91.0% of all inhabitants affected by a fivefold load live in the borough of Reinickendorf (17,738 inhabitants out of altogether 19,228 inhabitants).