Solar Systems 2023

Map Description

A total of 29,243 individual systems are presented in the two maps, of which 8,258 are solar thermal systems (as of March 29, 2023) and 20,985 photovoltaic systems (as of July 23, 2023). These only include systems that are known to the various funding bodies. However, it may be assumed that more than 90 % of all existing systems in Berlin were recorded for the different system types at their respective times of data collection.

The stand-alone photovoltaic systems, e.g. solar-powered parking meters or lighting systems and similar off-grid systems, form a separate data set that is not included here.

Map 08.09.1 Photovoltaics (PV)

As of July 23, 2023, 20,985 PV systems were registered in Berlin. The great majority of these are small systems below 30 kWp (19,987) while only 227 of them are larger systems (> 100 kWp). They have a total installed capacity of about 229,492 kWp. Of these, the above-mentioned larger systems account for about a third (approx. 54,222 kWp) of the total capacity in Berlin. The three boroughs of Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Pankow have by far the largest number of systems and the highest total capacity with the number of systems ranging between 3,010 and 3,778. In terms of installed capacity, the borough of Lichtenberg also stands out with 21,59 MWp. Here, the considerably lower absolute number of systems is offset by individual systems that have a high installed capacity. Taking a closer look at postal code level reveals that most postal code areas with capacities exceeding 1,000 kWp fall into single family-home estates on the periphery with a high absolute number of systems.

As of April 1, 2023, a total of 691 PV systems with a capacity of 42.08 MWp were installed on buildings of the public sector. The borough of Lichtenberg has the highest number of PV systems on public buildings with 112 systems, followed by Pankow (91) and Marzahn-Hellersdorf (90). However, the borough of Pankow achieves the highest installed capacity with 5.46 MWp, closely followed by Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf, Mitte, and Spandau. The public sector also maintains buildings outside of Berlin, where four PV systems are installed at three locations. These four PV systems, each with an average capacity of around 470 kWp, collectively reach a similar installed capacity as the 30 and 39 systems in the boroughs of Tempelhof-Schöneberg and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg.

Tab. 3: Number of PV systems and their installed capacity in Berlin’s boroughs (as of July 23, 2023, electricity feed-in as of December 31, 2018, data on systems of the public sector, as of April 1, 2023)

Since the systems often produce more electricity than is needed for self-supply, the surplus electricity is fed into the grid. In Berlin, this accounted for about half of the PV electricity in 2018. Since 2012, the amount fed into the grid has risen steadily from around 43 GWh in 2012 to its peak value of 69.8 GWh in 2018 (see Fig. 5). In 2016, a slight decrease was observed for Berlin. Between 2012 and the end of 2018, the largest increases were recorded for the boroughs of Marzahn-Hellersdorf (+127 %), Reinickendorf (+120 %) and Mitte (+83 %). The highest absolute electricity feed-ins were recorded for the boroughs of Marzahn-Hellersdorf (11,325.4 MWh) and Treptow-Köpenick (8,596.04 MWh) according to the latest data (cf. Tab. 3). Electricity feed-ins are clearly concentrated in the northern and eastern boroughs. Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg feeds the least electricity into the grid. This is, however, also the borough with the fewest systems accounting for a low total capacity. The more centrally located area 10365, west of the Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde (Friedrichsfelde Central Cemetery), however, was the postal code area with the highest electricity feed-in, which was around 3,063 MWh, according to the 2018 data collection. With 4,190 kWp, this area’s installed capacity also ranks among the top of the PV capacity aggregated by Berlin’s postal code areas.

Fig. 5: Electricity feed-ins of PV systems at the level of Berlin’s boroughs (as of December 31, 2018)

The relative coverage rates of photovoltaics vary across the boroughs, fluctuating between 1.58 % in Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and 7.63 % in Marzahn-Hellersdorf (cf. Tab. 4).

The determined relative coverage rates between potential and actual installations for the boroughs and postal code areas appear relatively low at first glance. However, the reasons for this lie in the deviation between theoretically calculated and technically achievable potential. This would have to be confirmed by further investigations and calculations in order to obtain an accurate picture.

Tab. 4: Relative PV capacity coverage rates in Berlin’s boroughs (PV systems as of July 23, 2023 (potential in relation to the installed capacity))

Results of the study on photovoltaic potential on roof areas

Of the nearly 536,000 buildings examined, some 421,000 buildings are suitable for solar PV use. If the theoretically suitable module area of 45.7 km² were utilised for electricity generation through PV with an efficiency of 19.5%, it could produce 7,929 GWh/year of electricity and save 4.3 million tons of CO2.

Tab. 5: Results of the solar potential analysis for photovoltaics on roof areas in Berlin (flat roofs are taken into account with an elevated installation facing south) (IP SYSCON 2022)

  • Suitable solar module area

    45,679,550 m²

  • capacity

    8,894,703 kWp

  • Electricity yield (with an efficiency of 19.5 %)

    7,929 GWh/a

  • CO2 savings per year (with an efficiency of 19.5 %)

    4,313,594 t

Map 08.09.2 Solar Thermal Energy (ST)

The updated data based on additional information from the Federal Office of Economic Affairs and Export Control (BAFA) indicates that 8,258 solar thermal systems are installed on rooftops throughout the city.

It is evident, both at a smaller scale of individual systems and at scales aggregated by postal code and borough, that the largest number of systems are installed on the periphery of the city. At borough level, key areas emerge for the boroughs of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Marzahn-Hellersdorf with more than 1,100 systems each (cf. Table 6). Similar to the situation in the PV system sector, these are smaller systems (avg. 9-11 m²) installed on single-family and two-family homes for private use. They are primarily used to heat water (IP SYSCON 2016) and thus constitute an important contribution to the energy supply. A considerably lower number of systems is installed in the inner city area and more specifically in the boroughs of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg (76 systems), Mitte (104 systems), Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf (209 systems). These are also the boroughs, however, with systems featuring a large-scale potential for electrical output or heat generation (avg. collector surface of 15-37 m²). These are located on buildings with public or industrial/commercial use. It is also worth noting that (as of December 31, 2015) six of the ten largest solar thermal systems in Berlin are installed on multi-family homes, i.e. they support the energy supply in the residential sector.

Tab. 6: Number of solar thermal systems and number of solar thermal systems of the public sector in Berlin's boroughs (as of March 2023)

Results of the study on solar thermal potential

Of the almost 536,000 buildings examined, more than 464,000 buildings are suitable for solar thermal use with a total module area of 66.2 km².

Tab. 7: Results of the solar potential analysis for solar thermal energy for water heating on roof areas in Berlin (flat roofs are considered with an elevated installation facing south) (IP SYSCON 2022)

  • Suitable solar module area

    66,264,578 m²

  • No. of buildings


  • Potential heat

    40,553 GWh/a

Map 08.09.3 Solar Potential – Irradiation

When taking into account all surfaces in the city, Berlin’s calculated annual sums of global irradiation range between a maximum of about 1,220 kWh/(m²/a) and a minimum of about 246 kWh/(m²/a). The mean annual sum for Berlin set by the Deutscher Wetterdienst DWD is 1,032 kWh/(m²/a). Roof areas only record very low numbers when they are covered by trees or are shaded for other reasons (cf. Fig. 6).

Fig. 6: Influence of the covering effect of trees also due to roof orientation on the calculated solar irradiation of rooftops (mean annual sums in kWh/(m²/a))

Fig. 6: Influence of the covering effect of trees also due to roof orientation on the calculated solar irradiation of rooftops (mean annual sums in kWh/(m²/a))

Top: calculated irradiation of the surface grids at a resolution of 0.5 * 0.5 m², in black: building perimeters.
Bottom: left: section of aerial photograph, February 2021, right: section of aerial photograph, August 2020.
Images: : aerial photographs: Geoportal Berlin, DOP20RGBI (bottom left); TrueDOP20RGB – summer aerial photography flight (bottom right).

In contrast, the highest numbers are measured on roof areas neither shaded nor covered that are facing south. Open and unshaded vegetated areas, such as the Tempelhofer Feld, also record high numbers around 1,000 kWh/(m²/a). Forest areas and tree-covered areas, however, reduce irradiation substantially, down to the lowest irradiation range of around 250-300 kWh/(m²/a) due to their structure and shading.

A direct relationship with urban climatic effects may be observed here, such as those modelled in the analysis maps of the climate model (cf. Environmental Atlas map “Climate Model Berlin: Radiation Temperature 2015” (04.10.3) “Solar Potential – Irradiation” (08.09.3) map therefore encompasses a wide range of potential uses.