The results obtained in the context of the application of the climate model FITNAH (phase I) led to a comprehensive, actual survey of the climatic situation in the city and closer surrounding countryside (cf. Map 04.10 Climate Model Berlin – Analysis Maps (Edition 2003). The following explanations refer now to the phase II of the Climate Model. Goal of the available maps is to define spaces of the city according to their different climatic functions, i.e. their effects on other areas and to evaluate the sensitivity of these function in relation to structural changes. On this base measures result for preservation and/or improvement of the climatic situation. The actualization of the level of knowledge on the conditions end of 2001 permits also the consideration of the climatic consequences occurring from structural development since beginning of the 90’s. Due to the close relationship of the contants, the explanation texts for the maps 04.11.1 and 04.11.2 show a common presentation in the chapters problem, data basis and methodology. In the chapter description of maps follows a partitioning into the individual evaluations:
- Map 04.11.1 Climate Functions and
- Map 04.11.2 Planning Advices Urban Climate.
The knowledge of the existing local climate in a city, the resulting air quality situation as well as the climatic coherences of function are significant aspects of environmental provision and city development. The protected subject climate/air is, as an important element of spatial planning, part of the deliberation process for urban land use planning, environmental impact assessments and site analyses. Against the background of competing planning objectives, the availability of area-related information is a fundamental resource for the appropriate appraisal of this subject.
The guiding ideas regarding climate and immission-ecological quality goals are the protection, development and regeneration of important climate- and immission-ecological surface structures, and is aimed at the improvement/preservation of beneficial bio-climatic conditions, air quality and special local climates.
The climate ecology analyzes “the impact of climatic elements and climate on the ecological system of the landscape and its balance, including flora, fauna, men and biocoenosis. Further subject of analysis is the management of significant near-ground atmospheric processes through the general landscape structural quantities (relief, development…)” (Mosimann et al. 1999).
Starting point for a climatic analysis is the structuring of the investigation area into burdened settlement areas, in terms of bio-climate and/or air-quality (affected space) on the one hand, and cold air-producing, undeveloped space characterized by vegetation on the other hand (compensation space). If these spaces are not adjacent to one another and the air exchange process is strong enough, they can be connected by linearly aligned, marginal developed open spaces (air-stream channels). The classification of favourable and unfavourable spaces as well as the connecting structures results in a complex picture of the process system of air-exchange flows of the compensation space-affected space-structure. After compiling the necessary evaluation maps in phase I by applying the climate model FITNAH Climate Model Berlin – Analysis Maps (Map 04.10, Edition 2003), the purpose of this investigation is the division of urban areas regarding their climatic functions and the provision of a current, complex and high resolution Climate Functions Map. Additionally, the sensitivity of these functions regarding structural changes is evaluated in a further step and presented in the form of a digital Planning Advices map.
The execution into area-specific climate- and immissions ecological quality goals debouches in the requirement for recommendations for action. By having a precise attribution of information relevant to planning to the important, climate-ecological process-controlling structural elements, e.g. cold air generating areas, air-stream channels and comfort areas, these can, on the one hand, be preserved and protected from negative influences (see Planning Advices Map). On the other hand burdened areas with an aeration deficiency and/or polluted air can be identified easily.
This methodical procedure provides funded conclusions for the scale range of 1 : 100.000 to 1 : 20.000. A first evaluation with regard to the impact of planning measures is also present on the level of local development planning