Urban Structural Density



Green parks or house after house after house – how much of Berlin’s space is claimed by buildings? And how much space is left for greenery? These maps hold all the answers: they recorded the degree of structural use represented by the site occupancy index (SOI) and the floor space index (FSI) for the entire city.

This data provides an overview of Berlin’s urban density, i.e. the ratio of areas that are built-up compared to undeveloped areas. The FSI map especially showcases both the intensity of building use and the historical building development of the city. Today’s inner city area enclosed within the City Rail Circle Line (S-Bahn Ring) has the highest density of buildings, especially in the two city centres, East and West. The district centres of Spandau, Reinickendorf, Köpenick, Hellersdorf or Zehlendorf also stand out. In suburban areas where single-family homes predominate, the density is therefore lower.

The parameters “site occupancy index” and “floor space index” are planning values under construction law that describe the extent to which lots are used. The regulations of the Land Use Ordinance (BauNVO) of 2017 provide the basis for the calculations. The site occupancy index (SOI) indicates the share of a lot covered with building structures. The floor space index (FSI) indicates how many square metres of floor space are available per square metre of property area and is calculated based on the external dimensions of all full storeys of the buildings.

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