Planning Advice for Soil Protection 2015
The map shows the areas differentiated into five soil-protection categories. In addition, the individual protection categories are divided into three impervious coverage categories, i.e. 0 – 5 %, > 5 – < 30 % and 30 – 100 % with different colour intensities. In the following description, the numbers of the soil associations are listed. An explanation of these numbers can be found in Table 7 of Map 01.01.
Maximum protection level
The areas of the maximum protection category are concentrated primarily in near-natural areas with rare plant communities or exceptional remnants of the ice age in the outer areas of the city.
Major contiguous areas of this protection category are located in the Spandauer Forst on valley sand with mesotrophic/ eutrophic histosols (1250, 1240) and oligotrophic transitional histosols (1200). These groundwater locations are associated with calcaro-gleyic cambisols, gleysols, eutro-gleyic dystric cambisols and calcaric gleysols (1150, 1231, 1210, 1220). The soil association covering the largest area share in this category (1200) also occurs in Schmöckwitzwerder (Schwarze Berge) in southeast Berlin.
Other sites near groundwater associated with the maximum protection level are located at Tegeler Fließ, with rare dystric gleysols, calcaro-dystric histosols, and eutrophic fluvi-eutric histosols (1180, 1280), in the Bucher Forst with stagno-gleyed cambisols – gleysols – dried eutric histosols on valley sand (1164); and in Müggelheim in the Gosener and Müggelheimer Wiesen with dried eutric histosols in a valley sand lowland (1260). In the southwest of Berlin, in Kladow; dried eutric-histosols with fossil gleysols and dystric cambisols in meltwater channels in the area around the Groß Glienicker See have been assigned this high protection status (1290). Other areas located at the edge of the Grunewald chain of lakes, at the Pechsee and the Teufelssee (Grunewald) consist of dried eutric transitional histosols, stagnic gleysols, fossil gleysols and dystric cambisols (1290, 1300), and in the Tegel Airport and in the Jungfernheide area, with fluvic soils (1320). A special phenomenon constitute the drained fluvisols with thick lime mud of Teerofen (1310).
Smaller areas with eutric histosols and gleyic soils are located at the edges of water bodies such as the Krumme Lake in Grünau und Schmöckwitz, the Neuer Wiesengraben in Köpenick, the Krumme Laake in Müggelheim, the Fredersdorfert Mühlenfließ in the Rahnsdorfer Forst, the Lietzengraben and Seegraben in Buch (all 1231) and the Wuhle in Marzahn-Hellersdorf (1270). The groundwater-characterized soil associations in the Havel lowlands in Tiefwerder (1320), in the Königsheide in Johannisthal, and the fluvisols in Heiligensee, also deserve to be mentioned.
Examples of areas with the maximum protection category and with main emphasis on the archival function are primarily the ice-age-characterized arenic dystric cambisols associated with the podzoluvisols of the Frohnauer Forst (1080), and the arenic dystric cambisols associated with luvisols in Gatow (1130), which are used as farmland.
The total area of this protection category amounts to 3,413 ha. Of these, 3,004 ha (88 %) are up to 5 % impervious, 295 ha (9 %) are between more than 5 and less than 30 % impervious and 114 ha (3 %) are 30 % and more impervious.As expected, impervious coverage of less than 5 % dominates this protection category. The proportion of areas with more than 5 % of impervious coverage is small and amounts to 12 % (cf. Fig. 6 and Tab. 1). In total, 3,318 ha are pervious in this category (cf. Fig. 7).
For the most part, these areas are forests. Other uses include parks and open spaces, mixtures of meadows, bushes and trees, residential areas and areas used for agriculture (cf. Fig. 8). Most areas are already protected in other legal contexts. The maximum protection is provided by conservation law, with the definition of official protected areas.
Very high protection level
All areas that are rated as high with respect to their yield function, their regulatory function for the water balance or their buffering and filtration function, or are rated as medium as a site for rare plants or in regard to their archival function are assigned to this protection category.
Major contiguous areas in this category, either pervious or minimally impervious, are located at the end moraines or push moraines, with a soil association of dystric cambisol – regosolic cambisol – colluvial cambisol (1040) in Grunewald, on the Schäferberg and the Seddinberg, on the Müggelberge and in the Gatower Heide. The slopes of these moraines, the Havel, the Griebnitzsee and the Müggelberge are characterized by the soil association dystric cambisol – regosol – colluvial cambisol / gleysol (1060).
The fluvioglacial meltwater channels winding through Grunewald are associated with the soil association dystric cambisol – chromic cambisol – colluvial cambisol (1050). Two typical soil associations with soils that are deemed particularly deserving of protection are the soil associations of dune-sand with spodo-dystric cambisol – podzol/ dystric cambisol – colluvial dystric cambisol (1090, 1100) in the Tegeler Forst, Rahnsdorf, Frohnau, Düppel and Müggelheim. At the latter location, these soils are partially mixed with the associations described for the end and push moraines.
Other areas are located in the Tegeler Fließ, with eutrophic fluvi-eutric-histosol – fluvic histo-humic gleysol – eutro-gleyic dystric cambisol (1280) and with dried fluvi-eutric histosol (1260) in the Gosener Wiesen. Small scattered areas can be found on the Barnim Plateau with sandy sink fills, e.g. in Malchow and Wartenberg. The soil associations which occur here are dystric cambisol – colluvial cambisol (1072) and dystric cambisol – luvisol – dried eutric-histosol (1022). Other occurring soil associations that deserve protection are located in the borough of Spandau (1030).
Areas with this assessment and a medium degree of impervious coverage of more than 5 and less than 30 %, are concentrated on the Barnim and Teltow plateaus, with boulder clay or boulder marl. These certified locations are generally smaller segments located in loosely built-up single-family home areas on the outskirts of the city, or in parks and allotment gardens such as in Lichterfelde, Britz, Rudow, Bohnsdorf, Mahlsdorf and Kaulsdorf. The soil association with luvisol – arenic cambisol (1010) represents 50 % of this share.
The total area of this protection category amounts to 12,353 ha. Of these, 5,879 ha (48 %) are less than 5 % impervious, 4,0314 ha (33 %) are more than 5 and less than 30 % impervious and 2,442 ha (20 %) are more than 30 % impervious.
This category contains 17 % of the area evaluated of which 10,702 ha (87 %) are pervious (cf. Fig. 7). The relatively high share of areas with less than 5 % of impervious coverage and with more than 5 and less than 30 % of impervious coverage are characteristic here (cf. Fig. 6 and Tab. 1).
The predominant uses in this protection category are forest, residential areas, allotment gardens, parks/ green spaces (cf. Fig. 8).
High protection level
This category of soils with a high protection level is based on the high capacity of the soils to fulfil their function for the water balance, or for their filtration and buffering capacity.
One large pervious complex along Müggelsee, Dahme, Seddinsee and Crossinsee is particularly striking, where the entire forest area on valley sand with dystric cambisol – stagno-gleyed cambisol – gleyic cambisol (1160) meets these criteria. In addition, there are smaller areas belonging to an acidic soil association of drift sand with spodo-dystric cambisol – stagno-gleyic dystric cambisol (1190). These dune-sand and valley-sand soil associations, which very much deserve to be protected, can also be found in the Tegeler Forst and at Jungfernheide. Smaller pervious areas are located primarily in the north, south and west of Berlin, on the Teltow and Barnim plateaus. The typical soil association here is luvisol – arenic cambisol of boulder marl (1010).
The moderately impervious areas in this category with a degree of impervious coverage of up to 30 % are mostly small and scattered. The medium and fine sand soils of dystric cambisol – stagno-gleyed cambisol – eutro-gleyic cambisol (1160), which run through the glacial spillway dominate with an area share of approx. 70 %. Soils of glacial sands on moraine areas with dystric cambisol – colluvial cambisol (1170) located in Charlottenburg that are used as allotment gardens also fulfil these criteria. Further soil associations include drift sands of spodo-dystric cambisol – stagno-gleyed dystric cambisol (1190) in Schmöckwitzwerde, in Wedding and in Heiligensee and ground moraines with luvisol – arenic cambisol of boulder marl (1010) in Bohnsdorf, Britz and Hermsdorf.
Soils that deserve protection with a high degree of impervious coverage of 30 – 100 % are limited to a small areas, predominantly in residential areas, allotment gardens and weekend cottages. These are primarily aggraded soils with soil types regosol + calcaric regosol + hortisol (2483, 2485, 2486, 2484). Certified areas include for example the Zoologischer Garten, allotment gardens in Britz and Französisch Buchholz and residential areas in Hermsdorf, Heiligensee, Biesdorf and Mahlsdorf.
The total area of this protection category amounts to 13,658 ha. Of these, 8,553 ha (63 %) are up to 5 % impervious, 2,748 (20 %) are more than 5 and less than 30 % impervious and 2,357 ha (17 %) are 30 % and more impervious.
This category accounts for approx. 18 % of the area evaluated, similar to the category “Very high protection level” (cf. Fig. 6). The pervious area of 12,208 ha (89 %), is also similar in size to that of the category “Very high protection level” (cf. Fig. 7). The largest proportion comprises areas with less than 5 % of impervious coverage (cf. Fig. 6 and Tab. 1).
Soils with forest use account for the majority of areas in this protection category, followed by residential area, farmland and allotment garden (cf. Fig. 8).
Medium protection level
The category of the soils deserving protection is based on their medium capacity to fulfil their function for the water balance and their filtration and buffering function.
The pervious or slightly impervious proportion (0 – 5 %) of this category is a large, predominantly contiguous area, covering Grunewald Forst, Forst Düppel and the Pfaueninsel. Here, the dominant soil associations are acidic dystric cambisols with colluvial cambisols of glacial sands very pervious to water (1070). Scattered areas of glacial sands, layered over marl, however, are also located in these forests and the Gatower Heide, characterized by dystric cambisol – luvisol – colluvial cambisol (1020). The soils of the former Tempelhof airport on boulder marl with calcaric regosol + loose lithosols + regosol (2489) also belong to this protection category.
The proportion with a medium level of impervious coverage (> 5 – < 30 %) consists predominantly of small areas. In the area that winds like a ribbon from Wannsee, via Nikolassee, Zehlendorf to Westend, the predominant soil association is that of dystric cambisol – colluvial dystric cambisol (1070). This soil association also occurs in the Hasenheide, Viktoriapark and the Landschaftspark Rudow-Altglienicke. Loosely built-up areas of Kladow and Gatow are characterized by dystric cambisol – luvisol – colluvial cambisol (1020), with dystic cambisol – colluvial cambisol (1030) prevailing in Dahlem. A large proportion of this category reflects residential areas on the Teltow and Barnim plateaus, which are partially aggraded, with soils of regosol + calcaric regosol + hortisol (2483 – 2486) and calcaric regosol + loose lithosols + regosol (2487 – 2489, 7777).
The highly impervious sections (30 – 100 %) account for the majority of this protection category. They are concentrated on the Barnim and Teltow plateaus, in the south and north of the city. These can be found mainly in densely built-up areas such as Steglitz, Gropiusstadt in Neukölln, Prenzlauer Berg, Marzahn, Pankow, Lichtenberg or the Märkisches Viertel in Reinickendorf. The soil associations are shaped by humans, and the soil has often developed from sandy aggradations. The dominant soil types are therefore slightly developed A – C soils, such as loose lithosols, regosols, calcaric regosols and humic regosols (2490, 2483 – 2489, 7777).
The total area of this protection category amounts to 17,318 ha. Of these, 2,974 ha (17 %) are less than 5 % impervious, 3,5814 ha (21 %) are between more than 5 and less than 30 % impervious and 10,763 ha (62 %) are 30 % and more impervious.
With 23 %, this category accounts for the second largest area among the protection categories. Of the total area, 11,480 ha (66 %) are pervious (cf. Fig. 7). While the aforementioned categories were dominated by areas with a degree of impervious coverage of below 30 %, this category is mainly characterized by areas with a high degree of impervious coverage of between 30 and 100 %. These are largely located in the residential areas on the plateaus, some lie even within the City Rail Circle Line. Areas with a low degree of impervious coverage of below 5 % are negligible (cf. Fig. 6 and Tab. 1).
The areas of this protection category are found predominantly in residential areas, but also in forests (cf. Fig. 8).
Low protection level (soils without special requirements)
According to this evaluation system, most soils and soil associations in Berlin are subject only to the general soil protection requirements.
These soils frequently constitute large contiguous complexes. These are primarily densely built-up areas with a high degree of impervious coverage (2482 – 2489, 7777), especially in the city centre (2540). These also include industrial sites along the Spree in Treptow and along the Spree and Havel in Spandau as well as in Lichtenberg, Neukölln, Tempelhof and Reinickendorf (2500). The soil associations in these areas are largely influenced by humans, and have developed mostly from sandy aggradations. Their common characteristic is a short development time with slightly developed A – C horizons. They primarily consist of loose lithosols, regosols and calcaric regosols.
Slightly impervious areas of this category are mostly former sewage farms consisting of regosols, luvic regosols, dystric-eutric regosols and gleyic regosols (2560, 2580, 2590) in the northeast of Berlin, while a very few are located in Gatow. The same applies to war debris hills (2510), landfills (2530), former industrial areas (2540) and railway tracks (2470). These areas did not receive a protection status, due to their potential or actual pollution.
The total area of this protection category amounts to 27,297 ha. Of these, 5,161 ha (19 %) are less than 5 % impervious, 2,744 ha (10 %) are between 5 and below 30 % impervious and 19,392 ha (71 %) are 30 % and more impervious.
These soils can be found on 37 % of the assessed areas. Only 15,126 ha (55 %) of the soils of this category are pervious (cf. Fig. 7 and Tab. 1).
Soils with a low protection level are largely located in residential and industrial areas, as well as fallow areas and areas with public service and other special uses. The high proportion of farmland (approx. 50 %) received a low rating based on its former sewage-farm use. Due to the existing pollution, these areas are excluded from moving up to a higher protection category.