Surface Runoff, Percolation, Total Runoff and Evaporation from Precipitation 2012
In the middle of the ‘90s’, a model for calculating the most important quanta of the water balance was developed, programmed and used in cooperation with the Berlin office of the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The approx. 25 required basic data or input parameters could be provided by the Urban and Environmental Information System (ISU) for each of the approx. 25,000 single sections. This model has been improved (ABIMO 3) and applied again with updated data.
The runoff model ABIMO developed by Glugla has been created on the basis of models developed as early as the ’70s for the calculation of groundwater supply, and been expanded to include modules which take into account the special situation of urban areas. This expansion was supported by an expert report by the Institute for Ecology (soil science) of the Berlin University of Technology, and a master’s thesis at the Department of Geography at the Free University of Berlin. The arithmetic implementation carried out by an external software company in addition adapted it to the specific data situation of Berlin.
The calculation method first of all ascertains the actual evaporation, in order to calculate total runoff (precipitation minus evaporation). In the second work stage, the surface runoff is determined as a share of total runoff. The difference between total runoff and surface runoff then constitutes the percolation. Fig. 2. conveys an impression of the complexity of this procedure.
Total runoff s calculated from the difference between long-term annual average precipitation values and real evaporation. Real evaporation as it is actually encountered, as an average, at sites and in areas, is calculated from the most important quanta precipitation and potential evaporation, and the average storage qualities of the evaporating areas. Given sufficient moisture input into the evaporation area, the real evaporation value will approach that of the potential evaporation. The real evaporation is additionally modified by the storage qualities of the evaporation area. A higher storage effect (e.g. greater binding capacity of the soil and greater perracination depth) causes greater evaporation.
The connection shown between the average value of real evaporation over several years on the one hand and precipitation, and potential evaporation and evaporation effectivity of the site on the other fulfils the Bagrov relation (cf. Glugla et al. 1971, Glugla et al. 1976, Bamberg et al. 1981 and Fig.3). The Bagrov relation is based on the evaluation of long-term lysimetre tests, and describes the nonlinear relationship between precipitation and evaporation in dependence on site characteristics. With the Bagrov relation, the climate quanta precipitation P and potential evaporation EP (P/EP ratio), and the effectivity parameter n, and hence the real-evaporation/ potential-evaporation ratio (ER/EP) and the real evaporation ER for sites and areas without groundwater influence can be ascertained. The Bagrov method is also used in modified form to calculate the groundwater-influenced evaporation, by adding the average capillary water rise from the groundwater to the precipitation.
With increased precipitation P, the value of real evaporation ER approaches that of potential evaporation EP i.e., the ER/EP ratio approaches the value of 1. With reduced precipitation P (P/EP approaches the value of 0), the real evaporation value approaches that of precipitation P. The intensity with which these boundary conditions are reached is determined by the storage qualities of the evaporating area (effectivity parameter n).
The storage qualities of the site are particularly determined by the use form (increasing storage effectivity in the following order: impervious area, vegetation-free surface, agricultural, horticultural/ silvicultural use) as well as soil type (increasing storage effectivity with higher binding capacity of the soil).
The measure for the storage effectivity of pervious soil is the usable field capacity the difference between the humidity values of the soil for field capacity (beginning of water percolation into the ground), and for the permanent wilting point (permanent drought damage to plants). Other land-use factors, such as hectare yield and types and ages of trees, modify the parameter value n. The parameter n has been quantified by evaluation of observation results from numerous domestic and foreign lysimetre stations, and water-balance investigations in river-catchment areas.
For sites and areas with near-surface groundwater, increased evaporation compared with non-groundwater-influenced conditions occurs in the evaporation-influenced soil zone, due to the capillary rise of the groundwater, depending on the depth to the water table and soil qualities. Runoff is reduced. If real evaporation exceeds precipitation, water consumption occurs and the values for runoff become negative (e.g. river and lake lowlands).
Water areas have a higher potential evaporation than land areas, because of higher heat supply (lower reflectivity of the irradiation). For the sake of approximation, the actual water evaporation is stated as equal to this increased potential evaporation.
Selective percolation, e.g. via groundwater charging facilities by the waterworks, has not been taken into account. For gardening use (allotment gardens, , weekend cottages, parks, cemeteries, tree nurseries/ horticulture and partly in residential use or public facilities/special use), a uniform approximation value was added to the precipitation to take irrigation into account (50-100 mm/yr).
After the average total runoff has been calculated as a difference between precipitation and real evaporation, surface runoff is determined in a second work step. Surface runoff corresponds to the total runoff on roof areas which drains into the wastewater/sewage system. Areas not connected to the sewage system thus produce no surface runoff. Non-built-up impervious areas infiltrate a part of their drainage into the sub-surface, depending on the type of surface (surface-coverage types). This Infiltration factor is dependent on the width, age and type of the seams. The non-percolating runoff is passed to the wastewater system as surface runoff – depending on the degree of connection to the system – or, if the system does not receive it, percolates into the soil at the edge of the impervious areas. Those portions of the precipitation onto roof areas not connected to the wastewater system also percolate into the soil (cf. Tab. 1). The difference between total runoff and surface runoff thus corresponds to percolation as a basic quantum for new groundwater formation.
For the application of the method for urban areas, the parameters n and the infiltration factors had to be determined for the various impervious paving materials. Both lysimetre tests were evaluated with different impervious-paving materials and calculations for wetting loss (cf. Wessolek/Facklam 1997). The quanta selected for the stated parameters are listed in Tab. 2. The change of these parameters due to compression and silting of the joints associated with the ageing process has been taken into account. However, due to still insufficient scientific bases, this information still involves certain uncertainties. Moreover, a different grouping of surface coverage types into surface coverage classes would be desirable from a hydrological point of view.
In order to provide an impression as to how the various area uses, imperviousness parameters and conditions of the wastewater/sewage system would affect the water balance, the ABIMO model was used for approx. 35 model sections with different input quantities; the results are shown in Table 3. The relationship between surface runoff, imperviousness and evaporation is decisively dependent of the extent of impervious coverage and the passage of rainwater to the wastewater system.
A new version of ABIMO programme was used for the present calculation. This version differs from the old one primarily in its improved parameter control in the assignment of values for the degree of connection of roof surfaces with the wastewater system.
As a result of these calculations, updated long-term average values for total runoff, evaporation, surface runoff and percolation are available for each of the 25,000 separate sections. These values have been shown classified in mm/year in these maps; the totals in cu. m./year have also been calculated and averaged. It must be taken into account that the values shown are average values covering the sections represented as uniform areas; in fact, however, they have non-homogeneous structures. The runoffs of impervious and pervious areas have been standardized to average values per block. In addition, the runoff of roadways has been attributed to the adjacent blocks. The maps do not show, for instance, how great the percolation capacity of a square meter of pervious soil is. For this purpose, another full-coverage and block-referenced calculation has therefore been carried out with changed marginal parameters, i.e., assuming completely pervious conditions. The results of this calculation are shown in Map 02.13.4.