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Surface Runoff, Percolation, Total Runoff and Evaporation from Precipitation 2017

Introduction

Efficient water planning and water resource management based on the principles of sustainability requires knowledge of surface runoff and percolation, and of new groundwater formation that is as precise as possible. Budgeting the components of water balance is of particular importance, especially in the Berlin area, which has only limited water resources, compared with other urban centres. There is also a clear imbalance between these resources and the number of inhabitants, their drinking and non-potable water needs and the associated wastewater produced.

Moreover:

  • It is important for the prevention of water pollution to be able to assess the amount of surface water flowing into the local bodies of water, since the precipitation water carries a considerable pollutant load into those bodies of water with it;
  • It is important for the protection of groundwater to have knowledge of the percolation capacity of the soils, since the transportation of substances from contaminated soils occurs largely via percolation water;
  • It is important for conservation and landscape management to assess the water availability for vegetation from new groundwater formation and capillary water rising from the groundwater surface.

The water supplied by precipitation to an area is broken down into the various components of the water balance, depending on climatological conditions and other local characteristics. These components are evaporation, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff (percolation or new groundwater formation) and water-inventory change. The parameter which must initially be ascertained is total runoff, the sum of surface and sub-surface runoff.

According to the general water-balance equation, total runoff equals the difference between precipitation and real evaporation. In this calculation, evaporation is the decisive quantum which, under natural conditions, is determined largely by vegetation, climatic conditions and soil conditions.

In urban areas however, real evaporation is considerably different from that of the surrounding countryside. Buildings and impervious areas in cities cause evaporation to be considerably lower than in areas covered with vegetation. While the plants continually perspire through their foliage, the only water to evaporate from the surfaces of buildings and impervious areas after rainfall is that small amount which has remained on their surfaces. Thus, total runoff is considerably higher in urban areas than in vegetation-rich areas.

In Berlin, for several years, roof planting has been increasingly used as an element of rainwater management. It reduces the runoff of rainwater and creates evaporation areas. In order to incorporate this effect in the water balance maps of the Environmental Atlas, since the 2019 issue the, green roofs of Berlin (cf. 06.11 Green Roofs) have been included in the calculations.

Enlarge photo: Fig. 1: Water balance in vegetation areas and impervious coverage areas
Fig. 1: Water balance in vegetation areas and impervious coverage areas
Image: Umweltatlas Berlin

Total runoff best characterizes the hydrologic conditions of catchment areas and segments. For closed catchment areas, the sum of the runoff of all segments equals the total surface and sub-surface runoff of the area, i.e., the water supply.

In urban areas with impervious surfaces, part of the total runoff flows directly into the watercourses via the appropriate inflow points, or indirectly via the sewage treatment plants – regardless of the degree of connection of these areas to the wastewater/sewage system. The rest of the runoff infiltrates the ground at the edge of the impervious areas or within the partially impervious areas, into the strata below the evaporation-affected zone, and thus recharges the groundwater. Given knowledge of the status of the expansion of the rain wastewater system, the percolation, or new groundwater formation, for these areas can therefore be ascertained by subtracting the entry of rainwater into the wastewater system from the total runoff amount.

The values on percolation and surface runoff thus ascertained are primarily of importance for water-management issues, and are also important characteristic quantities for the water balance of urban areas.

Moreover, in the context of the assessment of the efficiency of the soils for precautionary soil protection or for intervention assessment under the Conservation Law, the determination of percolation on pervious soil surfaces is of special interest. On the one hand, the differing percolation capacity of soils can be derived from this value. On the other, the effect that any planned future impervious coverage would have on the percolation capacity of a project area can be assessed in the context of the planning process.

These statements cannot be made on the basis of the values of Map 02.13.2, since the respective reference surfaces shown here are given with mean values of segments containing both impervious and pervious, and both sewer-system-connected and non-connected portions.

For these reasons, in addition to Map 02.13.2, the ascertainment and representation of percolation on pervious areas has been carried out for Map 02.13.4. It shows percolation of precipitation on pervious surfaces. The values shown refer only to the pervious portions of the blocks or segments.