The winter mean of a year includes the month of December from the previous year, i.e. the mean winter temperatures for the period 1981 – 2010 include December 1980 but do not include December 2010.
The long-term mean air temperatures from 1981 to 2010 range between 9.3°C and 10.4°C (cf. Table 1) in Berlin, depending on the location. The highest mean temperatures occur in inner city residential areas between Alexanderplatz and the Görlitzer Park in Kreuzberg. With increasing vegetation and decreasing building density, the mean temperatures generally decrease successively towards the periphery (Map 04.02.1).
The temperature distributions display very similar characteristics for all five periods analysed (i.e. the four seasons and the entire year) (cf. Map 04.02.2 through 04.02.5). The influence of the topography is evident in all periods investigated. In the bottom of Berlin’s glacial valley, which extends from the south-east to the north-west, the mean temperatures are always a little higher despite the relatively small difference in altitude (less than 30 m) to the adjacent plateaus.
Table 1 presents a selection of statistical characteristic values for the long-term temperature distribution from 1981 to 2010 for each period analysed. The analysis refers to the area of Berlin, excluding surrounding areas.