Urban Structural Density 2019


The maps “Actual Use of Built-Up Areas” (06.01), “Actual Use” (06.01.1), “Inventory of Green and Open Spaces” (06.02), “Actual Use and Vegetation Cover” (06.02.1) and “Urban Structure” (06.07) and “Urban Structure – Area Types Differentiated” (06.08) detail the types of land use in the Berlin municipal area. When it comes to the degree of structural use only indirect conclusions can be drawn from these maps, however.

The degree of structural use is essential for determining the urban structural density and the intensity of use, and therefore, in addition to the supply of facilities and open space, the urban structural quality of a residential area.

Thus, for the first time, the degree of structural use is presented at block and block segment level for the entire city in these maps, represented by the site occupancy index (SOI) and the floor space index (FSI). The Maps “Floor Space Index (FSI)” (06.09.1) and “Site Occupancy Index (SOI)” (06.09.2) provide a detailed overview of urban structural density in Berlin.

The two parameters site occupancy index and floor space index are planning values under construction law which describe the extent to which lots are used. The regulations of the Land Use Ordinance (BauNVO) of 2017 provide the basis for the calculations. The regulations of the Land Use Ordinance of 1962, 1968, 1977 and 1990 have not been considered, since they do not significantly contribute to the representation of urban structural density.

The site occupancy index (SOI) indicates the share of the area covered with structural facilities, as compared to the size of the lot (cf. Article 19, Para. 1, BauNVO).

The floor space index (FSI) is a parameter which describes the intensity of use of an area. It indicates how many square metres of floor space are available per square metre of property area, and is calculated based on the external dimensions of all full storeys of the buildings (cf. Article 20, Para. 2 & 3, BauNVO).

The maps refer to the definitions of the Land Use Ordinance (BauNVO), and show the key values of urban structural density at the level of individual blocks and block segments, since a representation at the level of lots would not be suitable for a general map. For this investigation, the existing inventory (actual) was ascertained for these two planning parameters. The maps thus show the current intensity of use for all built-up areas containing buildings.

The analyses are designed to permit a comparison of the actual use of built-up areas with the stipulations and descriptions of the Berlin development plans (land use plans, building use plans and local development plans), and thus to facilitate the localisation of areas that are over- or underused. Hence, the threshold values of the presentation and the class boundaries were defined with reference to those of the building use plans and the land use plans. To be able to draw more differentiated conclusions on densely built up areas with pre-First World War buildings, additional classes were developed for floor space indices of above 1.5.