Solar Systems 2021
A total of 18,180 individual systems are presented in the two maps, of which 7,981 are solar thermal systems (as of December 31, 2019) and 10,199 photovoltaic systems (as of January, 14, 2021). These only include systems that are known to the various funding bodies. However, it may be assumed that more than 90 % of all existing systems in Berlin were recorded for the different system types at their respective times of data collection.
The stand-alone photovoltaic systems, e.g. solar-powered parking meters or lighting systems and similar off-grid systems, form a separate data set that is not included here.
Map 08.09.1 Photovoltaics (PV)
As of January 14, 2021, 10,199 PV systems were registered in Berlin. The great majority of these are small systems below 30 kW (9,437) while only 200 of them are larger systems (> 100 kW). They have a total installed capacity of about 155,026 kW. Of these, the above-mentioned larger systems account for about a third (approx. 55,000 kW) of the total capacity in Berlin. The three boroughs of Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Pankow have by far the largest number of systems and the highest total capacity with the number of systems ranging between 1,464 and 1,916. In terms of installed capacity, the borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg also stands out with 16.91 MW. Here, the considerably lower absolute number of systems is offset by systems that have a high installed capacity. Taking a closer look at postal code level reveals that most postal code areas with capacities exceeding 1000 kW fall into single family-home estates on the periphery with a high absolute number of systems.
Since the systems often produce more electricity than is needed for self-supply, the surplus electricity is fed into the grid. In Berlin, this accounts for about half of the PV electricity. Since 2012, the amount fed into the grid has risen steadily from around 43 GWh in 2012 to its peak value of 60 GWh in 2015 (see Fig. 3). In 2016, a slight decrease was observed for Berlin. Since 2012, the largest increases were recorded for the boroughs of Marzahn-Hellersdorf (+86 %), Mitte (+70 %) and Reinickendorf (+95 %). The highest absolute electricity feed-ins were recorded for the boroughs of Marzahn-Hellersdorf (9,417.5 MWh) and Treptow-Köpenick (6,801.5 MWh) according to data as of the end of 2016 (cf. Tab. 3). Electricity feed-ins are clearly concentrated in the northern and eastern boroughs. Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg feeds the least electricity into the grid. This is, however, also the borough with the fewest systems accounting for a low total capacity. Taking a closer look at postal code area level reveals that, unsurprisingly and similarly to the installed capacity of the systems, electricity feed-ins exceed 500 MWh again in the residential areas in the western part of Spandau, which are characterised by single-family homes.
The relative coverage rates of photovoltaics vary across the boroughs, fluctuating between 3.82 % in Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and 15.79 % in Marzahn-Hellersdorf (cf. Tab.4).
At first glance, the relative coverage rates between the potential and existing stock calculated for the boroughs and postal code areas appear to be relatively low. This is, however, due to the difference between the theoretically calculated potential and the potential that is technically feasible. These would need to be confirmed individually by further investigations and calculations to facilitate reliable assessments.
At the smaller scale of postal code areas, much higher coverage rates (> 20 % in some cases) can be detected than at borough level. This is not only the case for postal code areas located in the two boroughs with the highest coverage rates (Marzahn-Hellersdorf and Treptow-Köpenick), but also areas in the boroughs of Reinickendorf, Pankow and Tempelhof-Schöneberg. At the same time, there are postal code areas with coverage rates below 1%, mainly in the inner city area. The underlying reasons in the two areas on the periphery lie in their respective development and therefore the system structure.
A high proportion of private single-family and two-family homes, which is much more common in the outer areas of the city than in the inner city, results in a higher density of smaller systems. As the roof area available per building is also smaller than, for example, that of flat roof areas of many a commercial area, however, this leads to higher coverage rates regarding the electricity generation numbers that PV systems could potentially achieve in single-family and two-family home developments.
Map 08.09.2 Solar thermal energy (ST)
The updated data based on additional information from the Federal Office of Economic Affairs and Export Control (BAFA) indicates that some 7,980 solar thermal systems are installed on rooftops throughout the city.
It is evident, both at a smaller scale of individual systems and at scales aggregated by postal code and borough, that the largest number of systems are installed on the periphery of the city. At borough level, key areas emerge for the boroughs of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Marzahn-Hellersdorf with more than 1,000 systems each (cf. Table 5). Similar to the situation in the PV system sector, these are smaller systems (avg. 9-11 m²) installed on single-family and two-family homes for private use. They are primarily used to heat water (IP SYSCON 2016) and thus constitute an important contribution to the energy supply. A considerably lower number of systems (well below 500 in some cases) is installed in the inner city area and more specifically in the boroughs of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Mitte, Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf and Lichtenberg. These are also the boroughs, however, with systems featuring a large-scale potential for electrical output or heat generation (avg. collector surface of 15-37 m²). These are located on buildings with public or industrial/commercial use. It is also worth noting that (as of December 31, 2015) six of the ten largest solar thermal systems in Berlin are installed on multi-family homes, i.e. they support the energy supply in the residential sector.