Solar-Energy Surface Potential 2005
The drafting of an overview of the potential of roof and façade areas suitable for solar systems means the incorporation of various parameters, including first and foremost:
- The specific topographical, meteorological and structural features of the city
- The typology of the twenty nationally relevant urban-space types with varying solar potential
- Solar-quality figures usable as planning code numbers and for potential ascertainment; and
- Energy-relevant solution models, i.e. optimized combinations of heating-requirement reductions and environmentally friendly heating supply, for each urban-space types.
With regard to the existing meteorological situation, Berlin has a relatively sunshine-rich climate. The city has its location in the North German Plain to thank for its largely continental climate. The result is that the Berlin Tempelhof station of the German Meteorological Service records an average of about 1670 hours of annual sunshine, according to a multi-year data, and is thus in seventy-second place among the approx. 430 stations nationwide (online information of the German Meteorological Service DWD).
The basis for this work was the break-down of the entire building stock of the Federal Republic of Germany into twenty so-called urban-space types according to the criteria mentioned above (cf. Table 1).
Urban spaces with similar structural and technical conditions and similar urban development histories can also be assigned a comparable solar potential, so that local focal points for the use of solar technology become apparent.
Examples of individual reference urban spaces of these urban-space types in Berlin are shown in a documentation by the contractor Ecofys, which is available for download (Berlin Urban-Space Type Catalogue, reference areas with photos and tables as a PDF document /2.5 MB).
Figure 1 shows an example from this documentation.
However, since there is no comprehensive information available about the distribution and location of these urban-space types in Berlin, it was necessary to adapt the data to the specific Berlin situation. For this purpose, a number of different information sources were consulted which had the major purpose of assigning the lot, or section types of the City and Environment Information System (ISU) to the urban-space types. The extensive results to this mapping process of land use in Berlin have been published under Map 06.07 Urban Structure.
The additional data bases used are:
- Block Map 1: 5000 (ISU 5) Dec. 31, 2003,
- Orthophotos 2004, SenStadt, Div. III,
- Maps of building age, by borough, SenStadt, as of 1988,
- Public list of monuments in Berlin (Berlin Monument List) (Official Bulletin for Berlin, 51st year, No. 29, June 14, 2001, SenInneres (Senate Department of the Interior).
- SenStadt, Environmental Atlas, Maps 08.01 Building Heating Supply Areas and 08.02 Predominant Heating Types
- Map “Areas with Overall Urban Change Potential,” SenStadt IA1, as of the end of 2005
- Single topical maps of the application FIS Broker, SenStadt, accessed August 2005 – March 2006.