Carbon Dioxide Emissions 1995
Carbon dioxide emissions were not directly measured, but were calculated according to the use of fuels. CO2 emissions differ from the classical air pollutants, such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. There is directly measured data on these substances in large combustion facilities. Energy consumption data is an important basis for the CO2 Map.
Existing Berlin energy consumption data in the Berlin energy balance is given according to sectors, but is not spatially differentiated. Other data sources differentiate energy use data spatially, but only for selected sectors or fuels:
- The Berlin Department for Urban Development, Environmental Protection and Technology has data on energy use in facilities requiring permits. This data must be provided to the Berlin government by the facility operators.
- The Berlin Department for Construction, Housing and Traffic systematically registered the energy use of a large number of public buildings in the last year.
- The Berlin Power Works BEWAG provided spatially-differentiated electricity use data. The information was aggregated in conformance with Information Protection Laws.
All other energy use data had to be determined on the basis of various structural data. Data used included:
- The Environmental Information System (EIS) of the Berlin Department for Urban Development, Environmental Protection and Technology. The EIS contains information about land use, including residential areas, industrial/commerce areas, and public facilities, etc. Information is differentiated according to a land use scheme with a total of 60 land use types and with high spatial resolution (cf. Map 06.07, SenStadtUmTech 1996a, 1996e).
- The EIS also contains data on the structure of space heating networks according to fuels, as well as the heated areas of residential and other use types (cf. Maps 08.01 and 08.02, SenStadtUmTech 1996c/d, 1996g/h).
- The State of Berlin Mandatory Inhabitant Registration Agency provided spatially differentiated data on inhabitants.
- The Household Fuel Database of the Berlin Department for Urban Development, Environmental Protection and Technology enabled the spatial differentiation of residences.
- A subsidy program for Building Modernization enables the identification of some buildings modernized with energy-saving effects.
- The Berlin State Agency for Work Safety has data which enables spatial identification of workplaces according to specific economic activities.
- The preparation of data bases for the CO2 Map used the described energy use and structure data, and the CO2 emissions of traffic in the primary and secondary road system. Traffic emissions were determined in the course of the creation of the emission data base caused by traffic (cf. Map 07.01, SenStadtUmTech 1996b, 1996f).
Fig. 2 shows the interfacing of data sources used to spatially differentiate CO2 emissions. White fields show data sources available as data bases for determination of CO2. Gray fields show data used for calculations. The sources are structural data, use data, and parameters and formulas for specific energy use values and emission factors, etc.
Where required energy use data were calculated for various use sectors by evaluating structural data and the corresponding energy consumption parameters, such as energy consumption per square meter of residential area, and energy consumption per workplace, etc. These parameters were assembled or determined from various sources.
Specific values for Berlin, or further differentiations, such as between East and West Berlin, were used as much as possible. A comparison was made of sector energy use data from various sources, such as households, public facilities, processing businesses, other users, and electricity use. Duplications were eliminated. Emissions were then calculated from energy use and fuel-specific emission factors.