Carbon Dioxide Emissions 1995
Map 08.03 Carbon Dioxide Emissions
The Map shows CO2 emissions in absolute numbers per block as well as the polluter to which the majority of the emission are allocated. This map clarifies three facts.
There is a clear gradient in CO2 emissions from the city center to outlying districts. The only exception is the northeast edge of the city. High block emissions here remain almost constant. This situation results mainly from urban density. The densely built and densely inhabited city center areas and the large settlements in the Hellersdorf and Marzahn districts cause considerably more CO2 pollution than the villa and the single-house settlements in Dahlem and in Rahnsdorf.
The decrease in emissions from dense city centers to outlying areas is overlaid with clearly delimited areas of high emissions. These areas – in contrast to the areas named above – are primarily large-sized blocks which naturally have more emissions in absolute numbers.
There is a methodological problem in the definition of blocks. Sometimes only relatively small segments of very large blocks are built-up. Prominent examples are the Tierpark Friedrichsfelde (a zoo in a park), the Volkspark Friedrichshain park, and the Tegel and Tempelhof airports. If the effective floor spaces are particularly large, such as the airport terminal in Tempelhof; or if they have a particularly high specific energy use, such as large swimming halls and sport centers, then the entire area is given this emission value even though emissions may be emitted only from a segment, possibly a very small one.
The road network emissions are highest on the city expressways (especially the Stadtring), the east-west boulevards (Frankfurter Allee, Straße des 17. Juni, Kaiserdamm), and the southern accesses to the city center (Tempelhofer Damm). The other main roads, particularly in the city center, form a second class of emitters in road traffic.
The CO2 Map also illustrates – at least qualitatively – the considerable CO2 sinks formed by the large areas of Berlin forests, particularly in the southeast and southwest.
The legend of Map 08.03 gives information on the distribution of aviation fuel tanked in Berlin in terms of its CO2 emissions which are not depicted in the Map. About 75 % of these emissions are from the Tegel airport, which has the largest airport passenger and freight volume.
Map 08.03.2 CO2 Emissions of Selected Power and Heating, Power, and Heating Stations of the Berlin Public Energy Supply
The map shows the number, structure and spatial distribution of CO2 emissions from the most important energy production facilities of public suppliers. The largest single source of CO2 emissions is the BEWAG power and heating plant Reuter West. It emitted more than 2.5 million tons of CO2. Six other power and heating power plants emitted more than 1 million tons of CO2. Power plants in Berlin are subject to a continual modernization process. The conditions of the Berlin market for power and district heating are also changing due to liberalization of the electrical sector. Some measures have been completed or announced:
- The Mitte power and heating plant received a modern gas and steam turbine unit with natural gas fuel (about 90 % energy efficiency) in 1997.
- The oil-fired power and heating plant in the Steglitz district was shut-down in 1995.
- Two of the three blocks in the power and heating plant Lichterfelde were refitted from fuel oil to natural gas. CO2 emissions from natural gas combustion are about one-fourth lower than fuel oil.
- The district heating supply of the Märkischen Viertel area was mostly changed to natural gas.
The map does not depict CO2 emissions of imports of electricity into Berlin. Imports in 1995 amounted to about 4.8 million tons of CO2, almost double the emissions of the largest single source in Berlin.
Map 08.04 Carbon Dioxide Emissions – Arranged by Sectors and Floor Spaces
Map 08.04.1 CO2 Emissions of all Recorded Polluters per Square Meter of the Effective Floor Space
This map shows specific CO2 emissions per square meter for all use domains. Measuring the building area eliminates the influence of block size and enables better comparisons of emission data.
The gradient, particularly between the city center and outlying areas, falls back to a relatively homogeneous distribution. The energy demand and/or CO2 emissions per sq. meter differ indeed considerably, but the extremes clearly flatten out. Emission centers are formed particularly by capital-intensive, and thus often energy-intensive, industries. Areas of intensive industrial use (cf. Goerzallee, Am Juliusturm/Nonnendammallee, Grünau/Teltowkanal, etc.) become clear. There are also clearly higher CO2 emissions for parts of the universities, and for individual special uses such as the Tierpark, zoo, and the sport and recreation center in Friedrichshain.
Map 08.04.2 CO2 Emissions from Electricity Consumption per Square Meter of the Effective Floor Space
The map shows the CO2 emissions per sq. meter of effective floor space which are solely due to electricity consumption. Electricity is evaluated for the entire city with a uniform emission factor, so the map also corresponds to a floor-space related depiction of electricity consumption intensity.
The marked area differences of CO2 emissions from electricity supply show a chear difference between the previously separated areas of the city (cf. the bordering districts of Wedding and Prenzlauer Berg). This difference is primarily due to different patterns of household electricity consumption. In 1995 average household electricity consumption in East Berlin was about one-fourth below West Berlin. The average number of inhabitants per household in East Berlin was 5 % greater than in West Berlin (BEWAG 1997, BMWi 1997). Household consumption of electricity was about 30 % lower in East Berlin than in West Berlin. Large industrial areas are intensive electricity and emission locations. They are depicted with greater differentiation than in Map 8.03.
Map 08.04.3 CO2 Emissions of Households without an Emission Share from the Public Electricity Supply
More than three-quarters of household CO2 emissions are caused by production of heating. The space heating demand and/or the CO2 emissions related to it, depend on the area to be heated as well as the heating insulation and/or the heating system used, such as district heating, fuel oil, natural gas, coal, etc. Map 08.04.3 depicts CO2 emissions from households in absolute numbers, but without the emissions calculated from electricity consumption. It thus initially reflects the density situation presented in Map 08.03. The city center areas in particular, but also the large settlements of Marzahn, Hellersdorf and the Märkisches Viertel, show high emission values. This effect is overlaid in the Prenzlauer Berg and Friedrichshain districts especially, but also the Kreuzberg and Neukölln districts. These districts use more household coal heating furnaces that produce above-average emissions.
Map 08.04.4 CO2 Emissions from Public Facilities, Industry/Commerce, Trade and Service Sectors, without Emission Share from the Public Electrical Supply
The map depicts CO2 emissions for all value producing (economic activity) sectors, without inclusion of emissions calculated from electrical consumption. The map shows two clear differing distribution patterns for CO2 emissions resulting from value production.
Value production (economic) activities cause almost homogeneous CO2 emissions at a comparatively low level across the entire city area. Primary polluters are mainly small and medium enterprises and the diverse decentralized services of the public and private sectors. There is also a clear number of focuses of CO2 emissions from centers of industrial production, trade (Westhafen, Hermannplatz), and services (universities, Alexanderplatz square). It is to be emphasized that these emission focuses are located less often in the city center and more often in the direction of the outlying areas, and that they form a belt around the inner city areas.