Traffic-related Air Pollution - Benzol, Nitrogen Oxide and Diesel Particulates 1993
Emissions in the Entire Road Network and on Primary Roads for 1993; Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
The values listed in the emissions cadastre for traffic are based on a 1 sq. km grid. These values identify the inner city within the City Rail Circle Line to be the most highly polluted area. Between 50 and 100 t/km2 of NOx a year are produced here. The greatest amounts of pollutants are emitted on the city expressway; over 150 t/km2 × a in the Funkturm (broadcast tower) triangle area. NOx emissions decrease in relation to traffic density. Towards the city limits the values are below 10 t/km2 × a.
Loads in the primary road network are relatively evenly distributed, however. The primary outbound roads at the city edges have emissions levels comparable to those in the inner city. Significantly higher emissions of more than 30 kg/m × a have also been registered at most city expressway segments.
Emissions on Primary Roads in 1993; Exhaust Particles, Diesel Particulates, Tire Abrasion
Emission levels usually reflect traffic volumes at various segments of the primary road network. The highest values for these 3 pollutants were found at almost all city expressway segments. The average traffic volumes at these expressway segments constantly reaches more than 150,000 motor vehicles a day. The lowest values are found at primary roads at the city edges which mostly serve to open up the outlying municipal boroughs. These roads do not have much through traffic. These roads are mostly in the boroughs of Zehlendorf, Spandau, Reinickendorf, Pankow, Weissensee, Köpenick, Neukölln, Tempelhof and Steglitz. Exceptions are noted for roads connecting the outlying municipal boroughs of Hohenschönhausen, Marzahn and Hellersdorf, as well as the center of Spandau.
Almost all primary inner city roads have medium to high loads, with a few exceptions. In contrast to other primary roads, high emission levels continue out to the city outskirts on primary arterial roads such as Heerstrasse, Avus, Tempelhofer/Mariendorfer Damm, and the long avenues of Schnellerstrasse/Adlergestell and Karl-Marx/Frankfurter Allee.
Another significant factor for emission levels by tire abrasion is road surface texture. This is why a few roads at the city edges, such as through the Köpenicker Forest, show higher tire abrasion emissions in Map 03.10.5, in constrast to diesel particulates and exhaust particles.
About 65 % of diesel particulate emissions are produced by truck and bus traffic. High diesel particulate emissions are thus clearly evident in Map 03.10.4 for the primary incoming and outgoing arterial roads mentioned above.
Pollutions Calculated for Primary Roads in 1993; Benzol, Diesel Particulates, Nitrogen Oxide (NO2)
The results of pollution calculations for the primary road network show load centers and their resulting danger potentials. The calculations also provide the priorities for interventention for these air pollutants. The map takes into account the concentration limits from the second phase of the 23rd Regulation effective July 1998 (23 BImSchV). The map then shows the great significance of the particulates load, followed by benzol and nitrogen dioxide.
A concentration value of 8 µg/m3 was used to assess diesel particulates at 537 road segments (18 %). These segment loads most probably or definitely require further study according to the 23rd Regulation. These segments are distributed throughout the entire urban area, but focus in a ring around the inner city, as well as on primary arterial roads heading south and east, such as Mariendorfer/Lichtenrader Damm, Köpenicker Landstrasse and Adlergestell. The map also shows that about 90 % of these segments just barely exceed or lie under the reference values. Relatively few segments (48) definitely exceeded reference values.
Benzol concentrations requiring further study were determined at 2.3 % (71) of all road segments. Most of these segments are also just barely over reference values; only 3 small areas in the inner city and on the city expressway clearly exceeded reference values. The heaviest loads are found on the edge of the inner city in the boroughs of Charlottenburg and Schöneberg.
The calculated nitrogen dioxide concentrations indicate further studies are needed at only 0.3 % (9) of the primary road segments investigated.
Calculated Benzol and Particulate Pollutions; Current 1993 and Projected 2010
The road network is to be extended by 2010. Map 03.10.9 depicts the benzol and diesel particulate loads projected for 2010 at 14 road segments. These are compared to 1993. A perceptible drop below the limit values valid 1 July 1998 is projected for every road segment, with the exceptions of Brückenstrasse and Danziger Strasse. The decrease in benzol is even more marked, because by then all internal combustion cars will be equipped with regulated catalytic converters. The slower implementation of measures to reduce diesel particulate emissions from trucks and other diesel vehicles indicates a comparatively slight load reduction. The extremely high load levels currently burdening Brückenstrasse will still exceed the limit value of 8 µg/m3 in 2010. Projected increases in traffic volumes should lead to definite rises in diesel particulate loads on Danziger Strasse.