Content

Bioindicators 1991

Methodology

Lichen Mapping

The depiction of lichen mapping results is based on VDI-Guidline 3799 Part 1. This procedure contains a uniform federal pollutant load scale (cf. Tab. 1), which enables direct comparisons with studies in other regions of Germany (cf. Kirschbaum & Windisch 1995). It is based on an evaluation of occurrence and coverage of various lichen.

Tab. 1: Evaluation of General Air Pollution Load Based on Lichen Exposure
Tab. 1: Evaluation of General Air Pollution Load Based on Lichen Exposure
Image: after Guideline VDI 3799 Part 1

The areas depicted in Map 03.07.1 present the interpolated values from monitoring data at individual sampling points. The monitoring data is presented for a better overview. It should be noted that the pollutant categories “very low”, “lower” and “moderate”, as given in VDI-Guideline 3799 Part 1, do not exist in the study area. The map presents only a portion of possible burden categories.

Lichen Exposure

The map of lichen exposure is based on data from 1981/82 and 1991/92.

The mortality rate of sorale is presented because it enables a differentiation of air pollution effects in relatively small areas. This procedure was developed in the course of the Cadastre of Ecological Pollution Effects. It is only an orientation because of the continuing lack of general standards.

The mortality rate of thallus depicted at the grid points allows comparisons regarding the improvement of air quality over a decade. It simultaneously documents the current status in the entire study area. The scale of values is based on the framework given by VDI 3799 Part 2 (cf. Tab. 2). This guideline contains an estimate of the degree of vulnerability of higher plants to air pollutant load.

Tab. 2: Lichen Mortality Rate as Measure for Danger to Higher Plants
Tab. 2: Lichen Mortality Rate as Measure for Danger to Higher Plants
Image: after Guideline VDI 3799 Part 2

The supplementary statements of sulfur concentration in 1991/92 are to be interpreted as qualitative information. They give indications about load spatial areas, but are not to be evaluated in relation to pollutant amounts.

Analysis of Pine Needles

Of the heavy metals, halides, and non-metals with nutrient and pollutant character (Kratz 1991, Markan 1992) analyzed in pine needles, only concentrations of the elements lead, fluorine and sulfur are depicted, for their accumulation documents a clear spatial differentiation of load. Findings of other materials show only a small difference between Berlin and its surroundings. A cartographic depiction would not be meaningful.

No binding guidelines exist for the estimation of detected concentrations; this means the findings only serve as an orientation for determining areas of greatest load. Comparative values for nutrient excess and/or toxic pollution influences are presented for information (cf. Tab. 3). They were taken from existing literature.

Tab. 3: Pine Needle Analysis, 1991, in mg/kg dm
Tab. 3: Pine Needle Analysis, 1991, in mg/kg dm
Image: after Kratz 1991, Markan 1992, SenStadtUmTech 1996a

Standardized Rye Grass Cultures

Lead and fluorine are depicted in Map 03.07.3 as relevant pollution components detected by rye grass exposure. The scaling of individual values considers the frequency of detected concentrations. The ecotoxic relevant guideline and/or tolerance levels for lead are 8 mg/kg dry matter (dm), and for fluorine are 30 mg/kg dm (cf. BGA 1986, FMV 1990). These levels were not reached in the studies. The scale serves primarily for the spatial differentiation of the pollution situation (cf. Tab. 4).

Tab. 4: Rye Grass Analysis, 1993, and Comparison to Index Value and/or Limit Values, in mg/kg dm
Tab. 4: Rye Grass Analysis, 1993, and Comparison to Index Value and/or Limit Values, in mg/kg dm
Image: after Kuznik 1993

Green Kale Exposure

Map 03.07.4 gives the concentration range of the studied material groups as well as an undimensioned dimension number for the influence of motor vehicles in this transsect. No limit values exist for the these pollutants. The defined load levels can only serve as an orientation for characterization of pollution levels. They were classified as “low”, “medium”, and “high” by a comparison with other studies.