Founded in the 13th century, Berlin has had an eventful
history. Excavations from 2008 suggest that the city may be
even older than was previously assumed: state archaeologists
have discovered an oak beam that probably dates back to
Almost no other metropolis has experienced such frequent, radical change transforming the face of the city. Although Berlin saw steady growth in its importance, dazzling epochs alternated with darker eras. Nevertheless, the formerly divided city has succeeded in becoming a vibrant metropolis in the heart of Europe.